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by:Huijinchuan Chemical     2020-09-30
Catalyst in the chemical reaction can change the chemical reaction rate of reactants ( Increase or decrease) Without changing the chemical equilibrium, and itself quality and chemical properties in no change before and after chemical reaction substance called catalyst ( Solid catalyst is also called the catalyst, 。 According to statistics, about 90% or more of the catalyst is used in the industrial processes, such as chemical, petrochemical, biochemical, environmental protection, etc. ( 1] There are many different kinds of catalyst, according to the state can be divided into liquid catalysts and solid catalyst; According to the phase behavior of reaction system is divided into homogeneous catalyst and heterogeneous catalyst, homogeneous catalyst with acid, alkali, soluble transition metal compounds and peroxide catalyst. Catalyst in the modern chemical industry occupies an extremely important position, for example, using iron catalyst in ammonia production, sulfuric acid production by vanadium catalyst, the polymerization of ethylene and three major synthetic materials with a system of butadiene rubber production, the use of different catalysts. According to the international federation of pure chemistry and applied chemistry ( IUPAC) In 1981: the definition of a catalyst is a kind of changing reaction rate without changing the total standard gibbs free energy of the material. This effect is called catalysis, involving the catalyst reaction called catalytic reaction. Catalyst catalyst composition, chemical properties and quality in no change before and after reaction; Its relationship with reaction system, like the relationship between the lock and key, highly selective ( Or specificity) 。 A catalyst is not for all chemical reactions have a catalytic role; Some chemical reactions are not only the only catalyst. Other definitions have a saying, catalyst in chemical reactions. In a general chemistry, catalyst is needed to reduce the reaction activation energy, is essentially a difficult happened reaction into two chemical reactions are likely to happen, By contrast, called inhibitor) 。 In both the reaction, the first reaction catalyst plays the role of the reactants, the second reaction catalyst plays the role of the product, so it will look from the overall reaction equation, there is no change before and after the catalyst in the reaction. In general, the catalyst refers to participate in the course of the middle of a chemical reaction, and can optionally change the chemical reaction rate, and the number of its own and chemistry in basic unchanged before and after the reaction of the material. Usually the catalyst to accelerate the chemical reaction, make response as soon as possible to achieve the effect of chemical equilibrium is called catalysis, but does not alter the balance of the reaction. There are four basic characteristics, catalytic reaction can be derived according to the definition, it is important for understanding the function of the catalyst. 1, the catalyst can only accelerate the thermodynamic response. For the development of new chemical reaction catalyst, the first to the reaction thermodynamics analysis, to see whether it is feasible in thermodynamics. 2, catalyst can only accelerate reaction into balance, can't change the reaction equilibrium position ( The equilibrium constant) 。 3, catalysts for selective reaction, when the reaction may have a different direction, only speed up one of the catalyst, promote the reaction rate and selectivity are unified. 4, the service life of catalyst. Catalyst can change the chemical reaction rate, itself does not enter the reaction, ideally catalyst to reaction to change. But in the actual reaction process, catalyst heat and chemistry for a long time, also can change some physical chemistry is proposed. According to the definition and characteristics of catalyst analysis, there are three important indicators: the catalyst activity, selectivity and stability. bPzgaNUEiC
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