The basic types of catalyst
catalyst basic types: chemical catalyst has homogeneous catalysis and heterogeneous catalysis, catalyst also should have the corresponding type.
This distinction, although can't reflect the nature of catalyst and the inner link, but it's very convenient and practical.
Homogeneous catalysis system catalyst mainly including Lewis acid, alkali, acid and alkali catalyst and soluble excess metal compounds (
Salts and complexes)
Non-metallic molecular catalyst of two kinds of catalysts, and there are a few, such as I2, NO.
Homogeneous catalyst is independent works at the level of molecules, or ions, nature of the active center is uniform, combined with reactant temporarily easier, with CD, pop, and isotope tracer method for detecting and tracking, catalytic reaction dynamics equation in general, not be too complicated, so quite a lot of research has homogeneous catalysis reaction kinetics and mechanism of more clearly.
The catalyst for heterogeneous catalysis system is a solid.
Industry important component of solid catalyst according to its main catalytic role, can be divided into conductor, semiconductor and insulators.
Segmentation can also be divided into: 1, the excessive metal catalyst;
Type 2, semiconductor oxygen (
3, excessive metal complexes catalysts;
4, solid acid catalyst.
Between these types, the difference of both its nature, there are some interoperability.
Catalyst can be divided into the following several types: (1) homogeneous catalysis.
Catalyst and the catalytic function of reactants are in the same phase, such as homogeneous acid-base catalysis, homogeneous complex catalysis, etc.
Most homogeneous catalysis in the liquid phase.
Homogeneous catalyst active center is more uniform, high selectivity, less side effects, but I can't separation, recovery and regeneration of catalyst.
(2) heterogeneous catalysis.
In two phase catalysis on the interface.
Usually catalyst for porous solids, reactant liquid or gas.
In heterogeneous catalysis reaction, solid catalyst of reactant molecules, chemical adsorption activation of reactant molecules, and reduces the activation energy of reaction, and make the reaction rate was accelerated.
Solid catalyst surface is uneven, only part of the point of reactant molecules chemical adsorption, referred to as the active center.
Catalytic role in industrial production is mostly belongs to the heterogeneous catalysis.
(3) biological catalysis.
Inner organism under the action of enzyme catalytic reaction.
Enzyme catalyst has high catalytic activity and high selectivity and mild reaction conditions, but affected by temperature, pH and ionic strength of solution.
(4) catalytic automatically.
Catalysis reaction products of the self.
In some reactions, some of the reaction products or intermediates have catalytic function, the reaction rate after a period of induction period greatly accelerated.
The catalyst is one of the essential requirements of chemical oscillation.
Other electric catalytic, optical and photoelectric catalysis, etc.
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